What is Bitcoin?

Imagine a form of money that bypasses banks and enables you to transfer funds globally without additional changes. That’s what is Bitcoin all about! Introduced in 2009. Bitcoin is the pioneer of cryptocurrencies and a decentralized payment system conceptualized by Satoshi Nakamoto. Operating on a peer-to-peer network allows for transactions among users without intermediaries like banks or any central authorities.

This decentralization offers benefits like faster and more affordable transactions. Bitcoin is abbreviated as BTC and defined by the symbol ₿. Each Bitcoin can be divided into eight decimal places, 0.00000001 bitcoins, with the smallest unit called a Satoshi.

A Brief History of Bitcoin

In 2008, a person or group called Satoshi Nakamoto introduced something revolutionary: Bitcoin – the first cryptocurrency. But it wasn’t until 2009 that the software was officially launched. Nakamoto, whose true identity remains a mystery, put forth a paper outlining a groundbreaking system called blockchain, which would become the foundation of the cryptocurrency world.

Satoshi Nakamoto made history by executing the very first Bitcoin transaction, sending 10 bitcoins to someone named Hal Finney. So, while Nakamoto’s identity might be a puzzle, their contribution to the world of digital currency is crystal clear.

Bitcoin’s Price Journey

  • 2008-2010: Bitcoin has almost no value.
  • 2011: Launch of Mt. Gox exchange; Bitcoin’s price begins to rise.
  • 2014: Bitcoin’s price reaches around $1,000.
  • 2014-2017: Historical data suggests price increases before Bitcoin halving events. Bitcoin reached a record high of nearly $20,000 in 2017.
  • 2018-2022: It became a popular investment choice for both big institutions and everyday investors.

Checkout the details of the growth in the price of bitcoin since it was launched.

Historical Bitcoin Prices Throughout Years

Year Lowest Highest Changes – %
2009 $0 $0.0009 800%
2010 $0.003 $0.40 13233%
2011 $0.29 $30 10245%
2012 $4.70 $13.45 186%
2013 $65 $1156 1678%
2014 $289 $1017 252%
2015 $171 $495 189%
2016 $355 $979 176%
2017 $755 $20089 2561%
2018 $3191 $17712 455%
2019 $3391 $13796 307%
2020 $104 $29244 28019%
2021 $28722 $68789 139%
2022 $15599 $48086 208%
2023 $16625 $31814 91%
2024 $26558 $73750 178%

In recent times, El Salvador made history by adopting Bitcoin as a legal tender, further securing the future of cryptocurrencies.

Check out: Bitcoin future price projections

How Does Bitcoin Work?

Unlike traditional currencies controlled by governments or banks, Bitcoin operates on a decentralized network. Here’s a breakdown to explain how bitcoin works:

  • Transactions: Bitcoin users store their coins in digital wallets and send them to each other for transactions. When a transaction happens, it’s shared with the entire Bitcoin network.
  • Mining: Miners, using powerful computers to mine bitcoin, compete to solve computational challenges. The winner verifies transactions and adds them to a block.
  • Blockchain Update: Verified transactions are grouped into blocks and chronologically added to a public ledger called the blockchain. This block of chain is nearly impossible to tamper with transactions. This ensures transparency and security as everyone on the network can see the transaction history.

Storing Bitcoin

You can store cryptocurrency both online and offline. The common form of storing Bitcoin is wallets, which come in various forms such as software applications on your phone or hardware devices resembling a USB drive. Offline storage options include cold storage wallets and paper wallets. This ensures your Bitcoins are securely stored whether you’re connected to the internet or not.

Bitcoin Units

Bitcoin can be divided into smaller units called Satoshis (named after Bitcoin’s creator). There are 100 million Satoshis in one Bitcoin, similar to how 100 cents make a dollar. This allows for microtransactions and fractional ownership of BTC.

Bitcoin, and in fact, every cryptocurrency in use today, is created and distributed using a decentralized public ledger system called blockchain. A digital wallet or crypto wallet is needed to use and store their Bitcoins. Whenever someone transfers Bitcoin to another person, the transaction is broadcast to the network and verified by miners (special computers) before it’s added to the Blockchain. This verification process ensures the security and legitimacy of each Bitcoin transaction.

Decentralization: Nobody Controls Bitcoin

Unlike traditional currencies controlled by banks or governments, Bitcoin operates on a decentralized network. Decentralization is a key characteristic that sets BTC apart from traditional banking systems This means no single entity controls Bitcoin. Instead, it’s maintained by a network of participants, including users, miners, and developers.

Proof of Work (PoW)

Proof of Work (PoW): It is a cryptographic process where one party proves to others that a certain amount of computational effort has been spent. This mechanism ensures decentralization by allowing all computers (nodes) in the network to agree on transaction validity. In Bitcoin, miners compete to solve complex mathematical problems as part of the PoW process. As a reward for their work, miners receive newly minted Bitcoins.

Benefits of Decentralization

Decentralization is empowering for users as they can transact with each other directly, just using an internet. Eliminating any intermediaries promotes a truly peer-to-peer (P2P) financial system. This decentralized system offers several advantages:

  • User Control: You have complete control over your Bitcoin without relying on banks or intermediaries.
  • Faster Transactions: Cryptocurrency transactions can potentially be faster and cheaper compared to traditional banking systems.
  • Increased Security: All transactions can be openly viewed by anyone on the network; increased security. The decentralized network makes Bitcoin more resistant to hacking and manipulation.
  • Transparency: All transactions are publicly recorded on the blockchain, ensuring transparency.

Blockchain – The Technology Behind Bitcoin Transactions

Blockchain technology operates as a decentralized public ledger, eliminating the need for centralized entities like banks to oversee transactions. Each block in the chain contains verified transactional information. Participants in the network independently validate transactions, enhancing security.

Information is encrypted within blocks using long numbers and stored permanently. When blocks are combined, they form blockchains, with each block connected to preceding and succeeding ones using hash. As more blocks are added, the network’s verification capability strengthens, ensuring the security of the entire chain.

This interconnected chain of data prevents tampering or alteration, rendering blockchain technology highly secure for Bitcoin transactions.

Blockchain is characterized by:

  • Distributed Ledger Technology: Every network participant has access to immutable records of transactions and distributed ledger, thus eliminating the need for any controlling centralized authority.
  • Immutable Records: Once it is recorded, participants cannot change or tamper with any Bitcoin transaction information. In case of an error in the recorded transaction, a new transaction needs to be placed to reverse the error and both transactions will be visible.
  • Smart Contracts: They are a set of automatic rules to speed up and enhance transactions. They define the conditions for the transfers of assets.

Mining: How New Bitcoins Are Created

Bitcoin mining is the process by which new bitcoins are created, or mined, when computers on the network verify and process validating transactions. These networked computers, known as miners, are compensated with Bitcoin for processing transactions.

Details such as amounts and addresses recorded in blocks on the blockchain network. Subsequently, all data undergoes hashing, a cryptographic algorithm, resulting in a 64-digit hexadecimal number known as a hash.

Over time, Bitcoin mining rewards have halved to significant value. Approximately every four years, or every 210,000 BTC blocks, Bitcoin undergoes a process called Bitcoin halving. This algorithmic adjustment reduces the supply of new bitcoins, potentially halving the Bitcoin mining revenue, and moves the network closer to its terminal supply of 21 million bitcoins.

Before the 2020 Bitcoin halving, the price of Bitcoin went up by 19%, and before the 2016 halving, it surged by 42%. When rewards are cut in half, miners have to find ways to cover their costs while keeping transaction fees low. Every time a halving happens, mining companies have to adjust to making less profit.

What is Bitcoin Used for? 

Bitcoin holders can use Bitcoin to purchase, sell or exchange goods and services without any intermediary authority such as a bank or financial institution. Bitcoin is also used for investment purposes. Many individuals and institutions see Bitcoin as a store of value and a potential hedge against inflation.

What Can You Buy With Bitcoin?

You can spend Bitcoin on goods or services at Bitcoin-supported retail stores, either online or physical.

Many debit cards now accept Bitcoin, where a certain amount of Bitcoin tokens are converted to local fiat currency to enable the purchase. Interestingly, several charities have also started accepting Bitcoin payments as donations. Today, there’s a increasing number of establishments who accept Bitcoin, which include:-

  • Luxury Cars: Brands like Lamborghini and Tesla allow users to purchase using Bitcoin
  • Smartphones: Apple and Samsung already lead the race when it comes to accepting Bitcoin for products across their range
  • Luxury Watches: Rolex and Tag Heuer accept Bitcoin
  • Real estate: Bitcoin investors are increasingly investing in properties in Europe, the US, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Australia, and Canada, using Bitcoin
  • Luxury bags and clothing: Hugo Boss, True Religion, Neil Barrett, and Gucci

Given how the prices of Bitcoin are going through the roof, most users simply hold it as an investment, a hedge against their equity or real estate exposure, and even go on to more advanced usages such as Bitcoin mining and trading, among others.

How to Buy Bitcoin

  • Choose a Reliable Crypto Exchange: Crypto exchanges allow investors to buy, sell, and hold Bitcoin tokens and transfer them to digital wallets for safekeeping
  • Connect a Mode of Payment: Users will need to connect their bank account, debit, or credit cards to make their purchases on the crypto exchange of their choice
  • Purchase: All crypto exchanges offer various ways to trade or invest in Bitcoin, including placing limit orders, market orders, and even stop loss orders
  • Store: Post purchasing your Bitcoin you will need to store your digital assets securely in a Bitcoin wallet, for use in the future

Is Bitcoin Risky as an Investment?

Yes, Bitcoin carries potential risks that must be taken into account. With unpredictable price swings, Bitcoin’s volatility can take out investments in a matter of a few minutes. On the other hand, it can also double or triple the investment amount to investments, crypto mining, liquid taking, and many more. Just like with other investments, it is advisable to carry out extensive research before venturing into the world of Bitcoin investments.

How to Store Bitcoins

When Bitcoin is purchased, it needs to be kept somewhere safe. Most investors store their Bitcoins in hot wallets that require very little or no setup.

To store Bitcoin in cold storage, users need to:- 

  • Purchase a cold storage device
  • Download a corresponding software
  • Save the recovery phrase or seed phrase
  • Create a new digital wallet address
  • Send BTC to the corresponding wallet address on the cold storage wallet

Types of Bitcoin Wallets

There are many different types of Bitcoin wallets, but primarily they are classified as hot wallets and cold wallets. They are operated using your private key that must be entered for any transaction to take place.

Hot Wallets: These include mobile wallets, web wallets, and desktop wallets that need an internet connection to allow users to send, receive, or store their BTC tokens. Essentially, hot wallets are linked with private and public keys that facilitate Bitcoin transactions and act as security measures.

Cold Wallets: Cold wallets such as hardware wallets, paper wallets, and print wallets do not require an internet connection or any interaction with any smart contract to function. Given they are ‘offline’, cold wallets are immune to online spyware and malware. It also isolates user accounts from smart contracts and protects them from any malicious approvals.

Best Practices for Security

Although Bitcoin transactions are very safe and secure, there remains a minute chance of hacking or theft from Bitcoin wallets, because it is all happening in the digital realm. To prevent this, it is best to connect your wallet or storage device to the network only when required and keep it offline at other times. Cold wallets are the safest in such scenarios.

Who Controls Bitcoin?

Bitcoin operates without central control, instead being governed by a diverse group of stakeholders. Developers craft the code that powers Bitcoin, miners verify transactions, and users engage in trading, and holding. This decentralized governance fosters transparency and shared ownership, as no single entity holds authority over the cryptocurrency.

Bitcoin Supply and Scarcity 

Bitcoin’s availability is largely influenced by crypto miners, but the mining sector is not very transparent, making data on inventories hard to come by. If miners decide to sell their reserves, it could push prices down. Recently, bitcoin’s price dropped below $64,000 after reaching record highs.

Bitcoin’s maximum supply is set at 21 million tokens, safeguarded against manipulation by a unique consensus mechanism called Proof of Work.

Halving events, occurring every 210,000 BTC blocks (or every four years), further ensure scarcity by cutting the new Bitcoin creation rate by 50% keeping the network closer to its terminal supply of 21 million tokens.


Bitcoin has had its fair share of ups and downs. People have different opinions about how useful it is, how widely it’s accepted, and what it’s really worth as an investment. But what makes Bitcoin special are its core ideas. It’s a bit like other investments where there’s a chance for big gains, but also a risk of big losses. Despite the uncertainty, one thing is certain: Bitcoin is here to stay.


How to earn Bitcoin?

Bitcoin can be earned through lending, trading, mining, claiming airdrops, and affiliate programs.

Where to buy Bitcoin?

Several crypto exchanges allow users to buy bitcoin including different other cryptocurrencies.

Is Bitcoin safe?

Yes, Bitcoin is safer than traditional currencies because of its decentralized nature. But, like any other form of investment, Bitcoin also carries many risks, including regulatory challenges, market volatility, and cyber security risks.

Is Bitcoin a good investment?

Bitcoin returns are eye-popping, making it an excellent investment option. However, the highly volatile BTC prices can make it risky. Hence, traders must carry out Bitcoin investments properly as a part of a diversified portfolio.

Is Bitcoin legal?

Bitcoin is legal in many countries, but many governments are raising concerns. However, several developed countries such as Canada, the UK, and the US are already allowing Bitcoin transactions and the use of Bitcoin as a mode of payment.

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